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TLR4, 20 years later

    20 years ago, in 1998, two research groups, Bruce Beutler’s and Shizuo Akira’s, have identified TLR4 as the LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) receptor, a key molecule in elucidating the mechanism behind innate immunity activation.(1) Briefly, LPS will be recognized by LPB and form the LPS-LBP complex which will bind to CD14. This interaction will facilitate the transfer of LPS to MD-2 a molecule associated with the extracellular portion of TLR4. Once in contact with LPS, MD-2 will allow TLR4 dimerization and intracellular signal transduction through the recruitment of TIR-domains containing adaptor molecules.(2) In addition to its important role in innate immunity, more recently overexpression of TLR4 at the surface of cancer cells has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis.(3) An anti-TLR4 (MM-0320) has been developed for MédiMabs-CCAB series and we hope it will be useful in your research project.